This chapter presents the research foundation including background of the study, research questions, the aims of the research, research methodology in general, scope of study and its paper organization. The keys of comprehending this research are provided in this chapter.

1.1              Background of the Study

Since English is acknowledged as necessary to enable Indonesians to involve in global community, it is taught even from kindergarten. TEFL is compulsory in Junior High School according to the school based curriculum. In this curriculum, the students must be able to understand and create various kinds of short functional and monolog texts in the form of descriptive, procedure, recount, narrative, and report (standar isi dan standard kompetensi, 2006:P. 212). Therefore this curriculum is a genre-based approach.

However in practise, the term genre is not new. More than a century, genre has been defined as written texts that are primarily literary, entirely defined by textual regularities in from and content, fixed and immutable, and classifiable into neat and mutually exclusive categories and subcategories (Johns 2002:P. 3).

Based on KTSP (education curriculum in Indonesia) there are five genres of the text that must be taught to students in junior high school. According to Harmer (2007: P.327), genre represents the norms of different kinds of writing. They who write within a certain genre need to consider a number of different factors. They need to have knowledge of the topic, the convention and style of the genre, and the context in which their writing will be read.

Since writing descriptive text is included in the curricula, all the first grade students of the junior high school must accomplish it well. However, many students of junior high school still lack of vocabularies which make them difficult to compose any writing text. The lack of the vocabularies can be seen when the teachers ask them in English and they do not even understand. Besides, the students have lack interest in English.  Therefore, many students consider it as the hardest subject to learn.

One of the possible causes of students’ weaknesses in coping up with descriptive text is the teachers tend to use Indonesian or their vernacular, Sundanese, rather than the English one. It brings English to be more unfamiliar for the students. How to classify the word into right word class is another problem for the students. The students find it difficult to arrange the words into correct sentence, let alone making the sentences to be logical and systematic paragraphs.

Oftentimes, the researcher found out that students are difficult in arranging a sentence or even they have no idea to say some words in English. Moreover, some of them do not know ordinary words in English. They are still confused in identifying word class such as verb or noun. For that reason, teaching vocabulary is considered essential, especially for the age of first grade in junior high school. They are facing some materials that demand them to master much more vocabularies. Vocabulary is the key.

Based on the problem above, the researcher aims to discuss the students writing ability. To be specific, it is focused on the student’s ability in composing descriptive text. The descriptive text is the first place to analyse because it is the beginning type of text taught in Junior high school. Thus, the researcher deals with writing ability in this proposed research project because she realizes that writing English through genre is difficult, especially for Junior High School Students. Since they are in the period of collecting vocabularies, the researcher will address seventh grade students as the object of this research.

Actually, there are many strategies to make teaching English more interesting, especially in teaching writing. In this part, the researcher will try to use genre based modeling strategy in improving the writing ability of the students on descriptive text. The researcher assume that through this strategy, the students will be better prepared to understand tenses, vocabularies, expressions, and other language features in writing descriptive text. This assumption is according to Brown (1994:P. 328) who says that to enable the students learning the concepts of grammar change and structure of a text, a model for learning and reinforcing should be employed. Therefore, this research aims to seek how modeling can improve students’ vocabulary in descriptive text.

1.2Scope of the Research

This research only covers a limited number of students for the subject of study. For this research, the focus is on how to make modeling as an effective means to create effective learning process so that the students might show progress in the end of the study. The population of this research is seventh grade students of Junior High School in Kawali 1. As the fresh graduate from elementary school, the researcher considers that their vocabularies are not enough yet to compose a text. It depends on their English teacher at their primary school, though. However, most students show the same symptom when they are assigned to write a text; they are confused and easy to quit. The researcher took only 40 students taken randomly from all seventh grades in the intended junior high school.

1.3Research Questions

The researcher considers that it is very important to make the statement of problem before conducting the research as this following:

  1. How can modeling improve the process of teaching descriptive text?
  2. How do the students respond to modeling implemented in teaching descriptive text?

1.4Aims of the Study

The aims of the study are:

  1. To figure out the ways of improving the modeling to create effective process in teaching descriptive text.
  2. To find out the students’ responses toward the modeling implemented in teaching descriptive text

1.5 Research Method

The researcher employs qualitative approach in this research. This research focuses on 40 students learning descriptive text through modeling. Those 40 students of a junior high school in Kawali 1 are the sample of this research. The data is gained from the pilot observation done by the researcher and also from interview and questionnaire. The obtained data will be then classified into several categories, to find out how modeling works. After those data categorized, the researcher will code them based on their categories. For it is a descriptive text, so the researcher is the main interpretive tool of all condition and results of the research. The researcher then will draw a conclusion based on all the data obtained.

1.6Significance of the study

The Significance of the study is a follows:

  1. To find out the best way on how to implement the modeling in creating effective learning process of descriptive text
  2. To help the students to increase their ability in writing descriptive text.

1.7 Clarifications of  Terms

It is important for the researcher to make clear the terms used in this paper as this followings:

  1. Modeling

If children are to write in a particular genre, they first need to become familiar with its purpose and features through immersion in the genre and by exploring sample texts Derewianka ( 2004 : P.7 )

  1. Teaching

According to harmer (2007: P. 107) teaching is “transmissions” of knowledge from teacher to students, or it is creating conditions in which, same how. Students learn for themselves.

  1. Writing

Writing is process of arranging words into sentences into paragraphs based on certain rules. According to Nunan (2003: P 88) writing can be defined by a series of contrasts:

  1. It is both a physical and a mental act.
  2. Its purpose is both to express and impress
  3. It is both a process and product.

In this study, writing means process and product of expressing student’s ideas in descriptive text.

5.  Descriptive Text

Social Function: to describe a particular person, place, or thing Generic Structure:

  • Identification: Identifies phenomenon to be described.
  • Description: describe parts, qualifies, characteristics.

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features:

  • Focus on specific participants.
  • Use of attributive and identifying processes.
  • Frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups.
  • Use of simple present tense.

1.8 Organization of the Paper

  1. I.                   Chapter I – Introduction

This chapter presents background on the research, limitation of the research, research questions, aims of research, and significance of the research. This chapter also provides a brief explanation about the method of the research. In the end of this chapter, the researcher informs clarification of main terms and organization of paper.



  1. II.                Chapter II – Literature Review

This chapter presents the result of the researcher’s search on theories or related research studies on similar field. It provides the readers theories which they need to comprehend this present study.

  1. III.             Chapter III – Research Methodology

How to feed the body of this research by the data are explained here. In this session, there would be research design, samples, data collection, data instrument, and data analysis. Many data that needed by the researcher are collected and analyzed in this part. Contribution of the samples gives a lot of objective views in gaining the data required.

  1. IV.             Chapter IV – Findings And Discussion

It is the spirit of the papers. The findings display all results of data analysis. The research questions meet the answers in this chapter. To make it clearer for the readers, the researcher conveys the discussions of the findings

  1. V.                Chapter V – Conclusion and Suggestions

This chapter provides the readers the chronicles of homograph history. It includes the origin and the development of homograph. to avoid unclear description, the researcher also presents all factors influencing the change of homograph meanings and forms